Worm attack is a group of diseases that reveal the presence of parasitic worms in the body.
Worms in humans, the treatment of which requires an integrated approach, cause the owner many unpleasant sensations.Parasitic diseases caused by various helminths (worms) and/or parasitic worms are very widespread among various population groups. Therefore, trichinosis is often detected in people whose activities are related to hunting or husbandry, and diphyllobothriasis is a common disease among amateur and professional fishermen.
Attention!Sometimes it is very difficult to identify the symptoms and signs of worms in humans, and treatment can go the wrong way, because helminthic attacks are very similar to the pathology of the symptoms of some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, with diseases of the liver, gall bladder. and other infectious diseases.
Method of infection
How do parasitic arthropods enter the human body? There are several known methods of infection with helminths:
- through the surface layer, i. e. the soil where the parasitic worms lay their mature eggs;
- through contact with infected domestic or wild animals, birds or aquatic fauna;
- through contaminated food that did not undergo adequate heat treatment;
- a large number of helminth eggs end up in open water bodies, which are also a source of infection;
- in some cases, the bite of a stinging or blood-sucking insect is the cause of infection.
However, the most common method of infection is human-to-human infection.
Diversity of parasites
Today, there are more than 250 different parasitic worms that are dangerous to human health. The frequency of infection depends on social conditions and climatic zones. Let us determine the degree of danger that certain types of worms pose to humans, and the treatment that requires immediate therapeutic intervention. Let's look at the most common and dangerous types of parasitic worms in the human body:
- Pinworms are a type of parasitic and free-living nematode whose favorite habitat is the human intestine. Parasitizing the small intestine or cecum, these worms reach the ileum, where they mate. After fertilization of the female, the male ceases his vital activity, and the pregnant female, full of egg capacity, continues her journey through the rectum, crawling out through the lower opening of the digestive tract. After laying eggs in the perianal folds of the anus, pinworms die. This movement throughout the body lasts about a month. The journey through the gastrointestinal tract has consequences. The appearance of worms in humans, the symptoms and treatment of which is determined by the disease called enterobiasis, is the most common type of helminthic infection.
- Roundworms are round dioecious helminths, their total length can reach 40 cm. Sexually mature females produce more than 200 thousand eggs, their favorite place is the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine. Roundworms cause signs of worms in humans, the symptoms and treatment of which are defined as ascariasis - one of the types of helminthic attacks. The free movement of parasitic worms causes irritation of the small intestine, which affects its patency. By parasitizing internal organs, roundworms affect not only the gastrointestinal tract, but also unexpected visitors to the respiratory and/or genitourinary system. Cases of roundworm penetration into the frontal sinus, nasolacrimal duct and the external passage of the hearing aid have been recorded.
- Trichinella is a type of protostome round parasitic worm, its larval stage begins in the elastic tissue of the muscular system, after which mature individuals are sent to the small intestine. Infection with this type of roundworm leads to a fatal disease - trichinosis. Worms in human muscles, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis are determined by facial swelling, skin rash, myalgia and blood eosinophilia. More severe levels of clinical pathology are characterized by damage to internal organs and the central nervous system. It is very difficult to identify Trichinella in the human body. All symptoms occur without any complications. Only after penetration into the central nervous system is it possible to determine the symptoms of worms in adults - treatment in this case is aimed at restoring neurological disorders, for example, ataxia or paralysis of the respiratory tract.
- Intestinal giardia is a genus of protozoan flagellate parasites that trigger protozoan invasion in the human body with primary damage to the small intestine and are the causative agents of giardiasis. By attaching to the walls of the digestive organs, the parasite feeds on the breakdown products. The favorite food of mature lamblia is flour and sweet food. Out with feces in the form of spores, the parasite enters the external environment. Often, during biochemical laboratory examinations during treatment for worms in adults, Giardia cysts are found to enter the body through chlorinated tap water.
- The provocateur of another type of helminthic attack is the whipworm, which affects the organs of the gastrointestinal system, causing trichocephalosis. Fertilized female parasitic worms produce up to 10, 000 eggs in a day. Development of whipworm larvae occurs without an intermediate host. Worms that enter the body damage the mucous membrane of the colon, thereby causing acute disorders. In some cases, whipworms are the causative agents that provoke inflammation of the cecum appendix, i. e. appendicitis. Prolonged presence of parasitic worms can cause anemia.
Identify signs and symptoms of infection
When worms and parasites are identified in humans, treatment is determined by signs of symptoms and biochemical laboratory test data. Signs and symptoms characteristic of helminthic attack:
- pale skin;
- general weakness of the body;
- itching in the anus;
- bowel function disorders;
- allergic reactions;
- phase change in body temperature.
The toxic effect on the body leads to a decrease in immunity, as a result of which the inflammatory process in chronic diseases worsens.
Attention!A characteristic feature of the long stay of parasitic worms is a sharp decrease in the body weight of the helminth carrier.
Home test for helminth detection
With the help of a simple test, which must be carried out by an infectious disease consultant or a parasitologist, you can check for signs of a possible helminthic attack. Count the number of questions answered yes.
The risk of infection exists with 10 "yes" answers, and more than 15 is already the probability of getting helminthiasis:
- is there a rash on the body that was not there before;
- whether you are bothered by frequent flatulence, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation;
- is there constant itching in the anus;
- Do you often have headaches or dizziness during the day?
- whether there is a sudden impulse to nausea or vomiting reflex;
- Is there intermittent sleep for no apparent reason?
- whether the lymph nodes are enlarged;
- whether swelling has appeared in the legs;
- Are you worried about constant tiredness and fatigue;
- Does the mucous membrane of the eye have a yellowish color?
- Do you feel a constant bitterness in your mouth?
- Are there any manifestations of allergies - cough, rhinitis, asthma;
- Do you feel a constant pain or heaviness in your stomach?
- are there unmotivated temperature changes;
- whether there are preschool children in the family;
- are there pets or birds;
- whether pain occurs in muscles and joints without the influence of physical activity;
- Do people around you complain about snoring or your teeth grinding at night;
- is there complete indifference to food;
- Do you often forget to process raw vegetables and fruits?
If, based on the results of the home test, there is a possibility of infection, you should contact a specialist.
Attention!Worms in human lungs are considered a very dangerous and rare disease - in such cases, symptoms, treatment and signs must be determined in the early stages of infection, which is quite difficult to do.
The clinical symptoms of this disease are very similar to bronchopulmonary pathology, which manifests itself in general symptoms:
- attacks of nausea and/or vomiting;
- difficult breathing;
- wheezing in the lungs;
- breathing difficulties;
- increased body temperature;
- productive cough and so on.
The causative agents of pulmonary lesions are various types of tapeworms, pig tapeworms and roundworms.
Helminthic attack in the organs of vision
Itching, irritation, increased sensitivity and allergic-type burning in the sense organs can be caused by worms in a person's eyes; the treatment of such helminthic infestations is a very labor-intensive process. It requires certain skills from a specialist, because parasitic worms constantly migrate throughout the visual organs. Symptoms can be determined by constant irritation of the eyelids, which resembles chronic inflammation in blepharitis. How worms come out in a person after treatment for eye helminthic attack can be seen in the photo.
How to get rid of helminths: methods of treatment
Today, infectious disease specialists and parasitologists have more than 20 anthelmintic drugs and agents at their disposal, treatments that can remove worms from humans. Treatment with broad-spectrum or narrow-spectrum anthelmintic drugs makes it possible to effectively combat parasites, provided that the diagnosis is correctly established and laboratory tests for helminthic pathogens are carried out. When choosing a therapeutic regimen, it is necessary to take into account the criteria of age, gender and weight of the patient, because antihelminthic pharmacological treatment is very toxic. Synthetic dosage forms have replaced traditional medicines - garlic, chenopodia oil, fern, etc. After identifying the symptoms, the treatment of worms in humans with tablets involves the complete cleansing of the body from helminthic infections.
The most effective dosage forms are broad-spectrum drugs that can control most intestinal and extraintestinal worms. The treatment of worms in humans with tablets is conventionally divided into pharmacological combinations of antitrematodosis, anticestodosis and antinematodosis action. Here is a list of the most popular drugs that help get rid of various types of helminth infections:
- Synthetic broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs from the benzimidazole group, widely used in the treatment of trichuriasis, enterobiasis and other manifestations of intestinal infections caused by nematodes. Active absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation allows the reduction of glycogen reserves in the tissue structure of the parasitic worm. The duration of treatment and dosage is determined by a consulting infectious disease specialist or parasitologist.
- Medicines from the group of imidazothiazoles are dosage forms of anthelmintic properties that have an active immunostimulating effect. Pharmacological treatment paralyzes the muscle structure of the parasite, inhibits fumarate reductase and weakens the bioenergetic activity of helminths. This drug is prescribed as an anthelmintic when the following diagnoses are established: trichostrongyloidiasis, ascariasis, toxocariasis, necatoriasis, etc. Dosage and duration of treatment are determined according to individual characteristics.
- Pharmacological drugs of the benzimidazoles anthelmintic group. The action of the drug is aimed at blocking and paralyzing the nerve endings of the helminthic parasite. Muscle paralysis does not allow worms to attach to the intestinal wall and feed on decay products. The appearance of parasitic worms occurs in a natural physiological way. Dosage forms are freely available at pharmacies. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor before use.
Help from traditional medicine
Helminthic attacks are also a psychological blow that adults try to hide from others for various reasons. Alternative medicine will help remove worms from humans using folk remedies. To combat helminthic parasites, various herbs are used, which are no less effective than drugs:
- wormwood, etc.
An equally common way to treat helminthic infestations is to eat raw pumpkin seeds. However, for full treatment, it is necessary to take 150-200 g of pumpkin seeds per day at a time, provided that the duration of home therapy is 3-4 weeks.
The most effective traditional medicine recipe to remove worms from the body:
- A half-liter jar is filled to the center with chopped onions and filled with vodka or alcohol solution. After a day's exposure, the drug is filtered and used for its intended purpose. Take 2 tablespoons 4 times a day for a week.
- Crushed pomegranate peel is poured into a glass of diluted vodka or alcohol. This medicine is taken every day, one spoonful every 3-4 hours.
- Boiling green walnut shells is very useful. The product, crushed in a mortar, is poured with alcohol and infused for 2-3 days until a clear brown color is formed. Take a spoonful one hour before meals.
- Boil two cloves of minced garlic in 200 ml of milk until completely dissolved. This medicine is taken in one dose before meals.
- A teaspoon of wormwood is brewed in 250 ml of boiling water, and after cooling, the healing medicine is ready for use. Filtered liquid should be taken an hour before meals 3 times a day.
A very effective preventive medicine is freshly squeezed carrot juice, which is recommended to drink 200 ml on an empty stomach for two weeks.
Prevention of helminthic attacks
The prevention of antiparasitic worms consists in observing hygiene and sanitation standards, which not only adults, but also children must strictly adhere to:
- You need to wash your hands with soap before eating, after walking and in contact with animals;
- food must undergo heat treatment before consumption;
- Street kebabs and seafood vendors should be avoided.
In addition, be sure to do daily ventilation of the living space and do not forget about wet cleaning.
Take care of yourself and stay healthy!